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|Author||: William A. Haviland,Harald E. L. Prins,Dana Walrath|
|Editor||: Wadsworth Publishing Company|
This brief text has been completely revolutionized to present students with the latest contemporary thinking on human evolution, adaptation, and prehistory. It offers students a straightforward and integrated presentation of material, focusing on selected aspects of physical anthropology and prehistoric archaeology as they relate to the origin of humanity, the origin of culture, and the development of human biological and cultural diversity. A New feature entitled "Biocultural Connections" illustrates how cultural and biological processes work together to shape human evolution and behavior, and reflects where the field is today. New coverage on cutting edge topics such as medical anthropology, genetics, environmental toxins, and globalization, demonstrate the usefulness of anthropology today. A new, unique "Epilogue" looks at cultural disease and globalization.
|Author||: Steven Mithen|
We live in a world surrounded by remarkable cultural achievements of human kind. Almost every day we hear of new innovations in technology, in medicine and in the arts which remind us that humans are capable of remarkable creativity. But what is human creativity? The modern world provides a tiny fraction of cultural diversity and the evidence for human creativity, far more can be seen by looking back into prehistory. The book examines how our understanding of human creativity can be extended by exploring this phenomenon during human evolution and prehistory. The book offers unique perspectives on the nature of human creativity from archaeologists who are concerned with long term patterns of cultural change and have access to quite different types of human behaviour than that which exists today. It asks whether humans are the only creative species, or whether our extinct relatives such as Homo habilis and the Neanderthals also displayed creative thinking. It explores what we can learn about the nature of human creativity from cultural developments during prehistory, such as changes in the manner in which the dead were buried, monuments constructed, and the natural world exploited. In doing so, new light is thrown on these cultural developments and the behaviour of our prehistoric ancestors. By examining the nature of creativity during human evolution and prehistory these archaeologists, supported by contributions from psychology, computer science and social anthropology, show that human creativity is a far more diverse and complex phenomena than simply flashes of genius by isolated individuals. Indeed they show that unless perspectives from prehistory are taken into account, our understanding of human creativity will be limited and incomplete.
|Author||: Anna Prentiss,Ian Kuijt,James C. Chatters|
|Editor||: Springer Science & Business Media|
Cultural evolution, much like general evolution, works from the assumption that cultures are descendent from much earlier ancestors. Human culture manifests itself in forms ranging from the small bands of hunters, through intermediate scale complex hunter-gatherers and farmers, to the high density urban settlements and complex polities that characterize much of today’s world. The chapters in the volume examine the dynamic interaction between the micro- and macro-scales of cultural evolution, developing a theoretical approach to the archaeological record that has been termed evolutionary processual archaeology. The contributions in this volume integrate positive elements of both evolutionary and processualist schools of thought. The approach, as explicated by the contributors in this work, offers novel insights into topics that include the emergence, stasis, collapse and extinction of cultural patterns, and development of social inequalities. Consequently, these contributions form a stepping off point for a significant new range of cultural evolutionary studies.
|Author||: William A. Haviland,Dana Walrath,Harald E. L. Prins,Bunny McBride|
|Editor||: Cengage Learning|
Offering compelling photos, engaging examples, and select studies by anthropologists in a variety of locations around the globe, Haviland, Walrath, Prins and McBride present evolution and prehistory in vivid, accessible terms, and show students how the field is relevant to understanding the complex world around them. The authors present the fundamental concepts from a holistic perspective using three unifying themes to frame the text: 1) the varied ways humans face the challenges of existence, 2) the connections between culture and biology in shaping the course of human evolutionary history as well contemporary beliefs and behavior, and 3) the impact of globalization on the continued survival of our species and planet. This edition offers a new Chapter 4, Primate Behavior, which examines the sophisticated behavior and communication abilities of the great apes and other anthropoid primates, as well as current ethical considerations over the use of primates in medical research. The vital issue of primate conservation is expanded and integrated into our survey of the living primates. Reorganized, streamlined, and richly illustrated human evolution chapters provide the same material vital for an introductory course in human origins as in previous editions but do so with fewer pages of text. In this edition, they have added new topics to the popular Globalscape, a map/story/photo feature that highlights specific examples of globalization and prompts students to think critically about its scope and consequences. Furthermore, the text’s strong supplements program provides instructors and students with a wealth of resources designed to enhance the teaching and learning experience. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
|Author||: Huw S. Groucutt|
|Editor||: Springer Nature|
This volume brings together diverse contributions from leading archaeologists and paleoanthropologists, covering various spatial and temporal periods to distinguish convergent evolution from cultural transmission in order to see if we can discover ancient human populations. With a focus on lithic technology, the book analyzes ancient materials and cultures to systematically explore the theoretical and physical aspects of culture, convergence, and populations in human evolution and prehistory. The book will be of interest to academics, students and researchers in archaeology, paleoanthropology, genetics, and paleontology. The book begins by addressing early prehistory, discussing the convergent evolution of behaviors and the diverse ecological conditions driving the success of different evolutionary paths. Chapters discuss these topics and technology in the context of the Lower Paleolithic/Earlier Stone age and Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age. The book then moves towards a focus on the prehistory of our species over the last 40,000 years. Topics covered include the human evolutionary and dispersal consequences of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic Transition in Western Eurasia. Readers will also learn about the cultural convergences, and divergences, that occurred during the Terminal Pleistocene and Holocene, such as the budding of human societies in the Americas. The book concludes by integrating these various perspectives and theories, and explores different methods of analysis to link technological developments and cultural convergence.
|Author||: William A. Haviland|
This is a brief text that offers a straightforward, balance presentation on views of human evolution, adaptation, and prehistory. It focuses on selected aspects of physical anthropology and prehistoric archaeology as they relate to the origin of humanity, the origin of culture, and the development of human biological and cultural diversity. Haviland's commitment to challenging student ethnocentrism is continued and reinforced in this new edition.
|Author||: Bruce S. Lieberman,Roger L. Kaesler|
|Editor||: John Wiley & Sons|
Prehistoric life is the archive of evolution preserved in thefossil record. This book focuses on the meaning andsignificance of that archive and is designed for introductorycollege science students, including non-science majors, enrolled insurvey courses emphasizing paleontology, geology and biology. From the origins of animals to the evolution of rap music, fromancient mass extinctions to the current biodiversity crisis, andfrom the Snowball Earth to present day climate change this bookcovers it, with an eye towards showing how past life on Earth putsthe modern world into its proper context. The history of life andthe patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized,as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system,and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe thehistory of life, but uses actual examples from life’s historyto illustrate important concepts and theories.
|Author||: Mark Norell,Eugene S. Gaffney,Lowell Dingus|
|Editor||: Univ of California Press|
Explains the evolutionary relationship of dinosaurs, answers fifty specific questions about them, profiles forty-one specimens, and describes six expeditions of the American Museum of Natural History.
|Author||: Paul F. Kisak|
|Editor||: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform|
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans. The topic typically focuses on the evolutionary history of the primates-in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominids (or "great apes")-rather than studying the earlier history that led to the primates. The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, paleontology, neurobiology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryologyand genetics. Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous period, and the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene, around 55million years ago. Within the Hominoidea (apes) superfamily, the Hominidaefamily diverged from the Hylobatidae (gibbon) family some 15-20 million years ago; African great apes (subfamily Homininae) diverged fromorangutans (Ponginae) about 14million years ago; the Hominini tribe (humans, Australopithecines and other extinct biped genera, and chimpanzees) parted from the Gorillini tribe (gorillas) about 8 million years ago; and, in turn, the subtribes Hominina (humans and biped ancestors) and Panina (chimps) separated about 7.5 million years ago. The basic adaptation of the hominin line is bipedalism. The earliest bipedal hominin is considered to be either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin; alternatively, either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may instead be the last shared ancestor between chimps and humans. Ardipithecus, a full biped, arose somewhat later, and the early bipeds eventually evolved into the australopithecines, and later into the genus Homo. The earliest documented representative of the genus Homo is Homo habilis, which evolved around 2.8 million years ago, and is arguably the earliest species for which there is positive evidence of the use of stone tools. The brains of these early hominins were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee, although it has been suggested that this was the time in which the human SRGAP2 gene doubled, producing a more rapid wiring of the frontal cortex. During the next million years a process of rapid encephalization occurred, and with the arrival of Homo erectus and Homo ergaster in the fossil record, cranial capacity had doubled to 850 cm3. (Such an increase in human brain size is equivalent to each generation having 125,000 more neurons than their parents.) It is believed that Homo erectus and Homo ergaster were the first to use fire and complex tools, and were the first of the hominin line to leave Africa, spreading throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe between 1.3 to 1.8 million years ago. According to the recent African origin of modern humans theory, modern humans evolved in Africa possibly from Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis or Homo antecessorand migrated out of the continent some 50,000 to 100,000 years ago, gradually replacing local populations of Homo erectus, Denisova hominins, Homo floresiensis and Homo neanderthalensis. Archaic Homo sapiens, the forerunner of anatomically modern humans, evolved in the Middle Paleolithic between 400,000 and 250,000 years ago. This book discusses the latest comprehensive information about human evolution and is designed to be a reference and provide an overview of the topic and give the reader a structured knowledge to familiarize yourself with the topic at the most affordable price possible. The accuracy and knowledge is of an international viewpoint as the edited articles represent the inputs of many knowledgeable individuals and some of the most current knowledge on the topic, based on the date of publication.
|Author||: Iain Morley|
|Editor||: OUP Oxford|
Music is possessed by all human cultures, and archaeological evidence for musical activities pre-dates even the earliest known cave art. Music has been the subject of keen investigation across a great diversity of fields, from neuroscience and psychology to ethnography, archaeology, and its own dedicated field, musicology. Despite the great contributions that these studies have made towards understanding musical behaviours, much remains mysterious about this ubiquitous human phenomenon—not least, its origins. In a ground-breaking study, this volume brings together evidence from these fields, and more, in investigating the evolutionary origins of our musical abilities, the nature of music, and the earliest archaeological evidence for musical activities amongst our ancestors. Seeking to understand the true relationship between our unique musical capabilities and the development of the remarkable social, emotional, and communicative abilities of our species, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in music and human physical and cultural evolution.
|Author||: Tim Megarry|
|Editor||: NYU Press|
Reveals a profound understanding of evolutionary biology, and an excellent up-to-date knowledge of human evolution studies. It is not only very well done, but...it is written from a novel point of view. It needs to be very widely read and I hope that it will be. Megarry is doing his subject a great service. --Bernard Campbell University of California Social scientists have tended to neglect prehistory in their approach to human societies. Tim Megarry's lucid and authoritative book remedies this neglect. It will be of great value to students of anthropology, psychology, and sociology. --Paul HirstBirkbeck College, University of London Stressing the importance of culture as a formative agent in the evolutionary emergence of modern humans, Society in Prehistory provides an impressive, interdisciplinary, and deeply informed survey of prehistory. Individual chapters focus on culture and evolution; biology and culture; primate societies; the first hominids; tools and culture; the economics of foraging; modern humans and human behavior; sex and the division of labor; and sexuality and social life. The book reveals that, while social behavior is biologically grounded, it is not biologically determined.
|Author||: William Haviland|
|Editor||: Wadsworth Publishing Company|
Offering compelling photos, engaging examples, and select studies by anthropologists in a variety of locations around the globe, Haviland, Walrath, Prins and McBride present evolution and prehistory in vivid, accessible terms, and demonstrate how the field is relevant to understanding the complex world around you. You’ll have the opportunity to explore the different ways humans face the challenge of existence; learn about the connection between biology and culture in the course of human evolutionary history as well as in shaping contemporary human biology, beliefs, and behavior; and see the impact of globalization on the continued survival of our species and planet.
|Author||: Michael D. Petraglia,Jeffrey I. Rose|
|Editor||: Springer Science & Business Media|
The romantic landscapes and exotic cultures of Arabia have long captured the int- ests of both academics and the general public alike. The wide array and incredible variety of environments found across the Arabian peninsula are truly dramatic; tro- cal coastal plains are found bordering up against barren sandy deserts, high mountain plateaus are deeply incised by ancient river courses. As the birthplace of Islam, the recent history of the region is well documented and thoroughly studied. However, legendary explorers such as T.E. Lawrence, Wilfred Thesiger, and St. John Philby discovered hints of a much deeper past during their travels across the subcontinent. Drawn to Arabia by the magnifcent solitude of its vast sand seas, these intrepid adventurers learned from the Bedouin how to penetrate its deserts and returned with stirring accounts of lost civilizations among the wind-swept dunes. We now know that, prior to recorded history, Arabia housed countless peoples living a variety of lifestyles, including some of the world’s earliest pastoralists, c- munities of incipient farmers, fshermen dubbed the “Ichthyophagi” by ancient Greek geographers, and Paleolithic big-game hunters who were among the frst humans to depart their ancestral homeland in Africa. In fact, some archaeological investigations indicate that Arabia was inhabited by early hominins extending far back into the Early Pleistocene, perhaps even into the Late Pliocene.
|Author||: Clare L. Boulanger|
|Editor||: Waveland Press|
In a writing style that will captivate those new to the subject, Boulanger presents an understanding of human biological and cultural evolution that is both scientific and humanistic, in keeping with classic anthropological ideals. The aim of this reasonably priced text is to help students think critically about what being human has been, what it is at present, and what it may be in the future. While the book focuses on the anthropological subfields of biological anthropology and archaeology, information and insights are also drawn from cultural anthropology and anthropological linguistics. Boulangers absorbing treatment, in contrast to other texts on human evolution, features an opening chapter that seeks to negotiate fairly, without defensiveness or condescension, a pathway for creationists to follow into the topic. The next three chapters provide background on the history of evolutionary science, the biology of inheritance and population change, and primatology. Chapters 5 through 9 focus on human biocultural evolution from the time of the ancestor we share with chimpanzees through the development of agriculture and the founding of states. The last chapter deals with the issue of racehow it has affected our interpretation of the past and how it continues to influence the present. In addition to an extensive glossary, the fully illustrated textbook features numerous topic-enhancing sidebars, questions for discussion and review, and student exercises.