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Culture And Values 3
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|Author||: Sonia Roccas,Lilach Sagiv|
What are values? How are they different from attitudes, traits, and specific goals? How do our values influence our behavior, and vice versa? How does our culture and environment impact the relationship between values and behavior? These questions and more are rigorously examined by prominent and emerging scholars in this significant volume Values and Behavior: Taking A Cross Cultural Perspective. Personal values are cognitive representations of abstract, desirable motivational goals that guide the way individuals select actions, evaluate people and events, and explain their actions and evaluations. The unique features of values have implications for their impact on behavior. People are highly satisfied with their values and perceive them as close to their ideal selves. At the same time, however, daily interpersonal interaction reveals that individuals hold different, sometimes opposing, value profiles. These individual differences are even more apparent when individuals from different cultures interact. The collected chapters address the links between values and behavior from a cultural perspective. They review studies conducted in various cultures and discuss culture as a moderator of the relationships between values and behavior. Structurally, part I of the volume discusses what values are and how they should be measure; part II then examines the contents of the relationships between values and behavior in different life-domains, including prosocial behavior, aggression, behavior in organizations and relationships formation. Part III explores some of the moderating mechanisms that relate values to behavior. Taken together, these chapters review and synthesize over twenty years of research on values and behavior, and propose new insights that have important implications for both research and for practice.
|Author||: Eelke de Jong|
Since the early 1990s, culture, in the sense of norms and values, has entered economic analysis again, whereas it was totally absent from mainstream economics during most of the second half of the twentieth century. The disappointing results of mainstream economics and developments in the world economy triggered an awareness of the relevance of the context in which people make decisions. Developments which were triggering this were the unexpected high growth rates in Asia, (the Asian miracle), the transition of previously centrally planned economies and the increased attention for the role of religion after 9/11/2001. Some of the areas this research covers are: The history of culture in economics from Adam Smith to the present The way culture is incorporated into economic analysis Methods used in empirical analysis on culture and economics Culture as an explanatory factor of cross-country difference in institutions and performance Culture appears to be relevant for explaining differences between otherwise similar countries; in particular OECD-countries. Uncertainty avoidance, for example, significantly explains the relative importance of financial markets. This book is the first that provides an overview of the field of culture and economics and will be of use to postgraduate researchers in the field of economics and culture.
|Author||: Sava Alexander Vojcanin|
|Editor||: Transaction Publishers|
This festschrift, in honor of the work of Gray L. Dorsey, covers their major areas of his lifelong commitment to the culture and jurisprudence of law in an historical and comparative, East-West context. Within his normative framework, Dorsey took account of the crisis in positivism, Marxism, and alternative conceptions of value in the law. His work emphasized intercultural conflicts in a societal and global environment without surrendering the sense of western culture and its special contributions to legal and moral thought. The volume, originally prepared as a special issue of the Washington University Law Quarterly, has the benefit of an urbane new opening essay by Professor Vojcanin, which seeks to show how jurisculture is a "treasure map one may use to unearth the holes in which justice was hidden." It also contains a special essay by Gray Dorsey to conclude the volume in which he offers his current views on the philosophy of law and social theory in general. The volume is vigorous in its analysis, and central to any serious appraisal of the status of the philosophy of international law at this stage in history. The essays by Abraham Edel, Elizabeth Flower, Harold J. Berman, and Iredell Jenkins give special attention to this theme. The chapters by Jerome Hall, Herbert H.P. Ma, and Thomas H. Fang each take up a central issue in the relationship of world religion to world law. A third set of papers--by Edward McWhinney, Palitha T.B. Kohona, and Jacob W.F. Sundberg, discuss the major sociological implications of Dorsey's type of legal theory--with figures from Karl Marx, Max Weber, and F.S.C. Northrop covered in detail. For three decades, Gray L. Dorsey has contributed to comparative legal systems, emphasizing through his novel method of reasoning--jurisculture--a synthesis of empirical investigation and legal reasoning. Dorsey's work focuses on a set of meanings derived without reference to observed events, but by the adaptation and use of fundamental beliefs to organize and govern human cooperation. Gray L. Dorsey is Charles Nagel Professor Emeritus of Jurisprudence at International Law at Washington University Law School in St. Louis. He is the author of, among other works, Beyond the United States: Changing Discourse in International Politics and Law, and Jurisculture--the first two volumes, on Greece and Rome, and on India and China are now published by Transaction Publishers--with an additional five volumes remaining to complete this massive project. He is a past president of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy.
|Author||: Lawrence E. Harrison,Jerome Kagan|
|Editor||: Taylor & Francis|
Developing Cultures: Essays on Cultural Change is a collection of 21 expert essays on the institutions that transmit cultural values from generation to generation. The essays are an outgrowth of a research project begun by Samuel Huntington and Larry Harrison in their widely discussed book Culture Matters the goal of which is guidelines for cultural change that can accelerate development in the Third World. The essays in this volume cover child rearing, several aspects of education, the world's major religions, the media, political leadership, and development projects. The book is companion volume to Developing Cultures: Case Studies.(0415952808).
|Author||: J. C. Munene,Shalom H. Schwartz|
|Editor||: Kit Pub|
Cultural values provide the context in which we act and negotiate regarding new ideas. When culture can be mobilized, it has the potential to serve as a resource in fighting poverty and facilitating development. The studies reported in Cultural Values and Development in Uganda are both theoretically interesting and practically applicable. Individual level values are shown to be directly related to whether people participate or not in projects that enable them to move out of poverty. Community level values can either enhance the effectiveness of attempts to promote development, or clash with and frustrate these attempts. Social capital is another important factor: its far-reaching effects can help to explain differences in the degree of development and the conditions required for change. This research confirms the hypothesis of a Black African cultural profile, shared by Uganda, as well as that of differences between the value systems of developing countries and those of Northern donors and NGOs. The conflict and strain that is apt to result is a serious opportunity cost. The authors consider the implications for cultural change in Uganda.
|Author||: David L. Hoffmann|
|Editor||: Cornell University Press|
Soviet official culture underwent a dramatic shift in the mid-1930s, when Stalin and his fellow leaders began to promote conventional norms, patriarchal families, tsarist heroes, and Russian literary classics. For Leon Trotsky—and many later commentators—this apparent embrace of bourgeois values marked a betrayal of the October Revolution and a retreat from socialism. In the first book to address these developments fully, David L. Hoffmann argues that, far from reversing direction, the Stalinist leadership remained committed to remaking both individuals and society—and used selected elements of traditional culture to bolster the socialist order. Melding original archival research with new scholarship in the field, Hoffmann describes Soviet cultural and behavioral norms in such areas as leisure activities, social hygiene, family life, and sexuality. He demonstrates that the Soviet state's campaign to effect social improvement by intervening in the lives of its citizens was not unique but echoed the efforts of other European governments, both fascist and liberal, in the interwar period. Indeed, in Europe, America, and Stalin's Russia, governments sought to inculcate many of the same values—from order and efficiency to sobriety and literacy. For Hoffmann, what remains distinctive about the Soviet case is the collectivist orientation of official culture and the degree of coercion the state applied to pursue its goals.
|Author||: Lawrence E. Harrison,Samuel P. Huntington|
|Editor||: Basic Books|
Prominent scholars and journalists ponder the question of why, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the world is more divided than ever between the rich and the poor, between those living in freedom and those under oppression.
|Author||: Francisco Liñán,Ghulam Nabi,Norris Krueger|
Cultural Values and Entrepreneurship aims to broaden and deepen our understanding of which elements of ‘culture’ influence, or are influenced by, entrepreneurial activity. Differences in entrepreneurial activity among countries, and regions within those countries, are persistent and cannot be fully explained by institutional and economic variables. A substantial number of these differences have been attributed to culture, and it is clear that some socio-cultural practices, values and norms are more conducive to driving or inhibiting entrepreneurial intentions and activity. However, we need to dig deeper into ‘how’ and ‘why’ cultural practices, and underlying values and norms, matter in entrepreneurial action, in order to more fully understand the complexities of the processes, without making cross-cultural or cross-national generalisations. Unique cultural, national, and institutional contexts present different practices in terms of opportunities and challenges for driving entrepreneurial action. The contributions in this book consider some of the many different facets of the culture-entrepreneurship relationship, and offer valuable insights to our understanding of the field. This book was originally published as a special issue of Entrepreneurship & Regional Development.
|Author||: Lawrence S. Cunningham,John J. Reich,Lois Fichner-Rathus|
|Editor||: Cengage Learning|
CULTURE AND VALUES: A SURVEY OF THE WESTERN HUMANITIES takes you on a fascinating tour of some of the world's most significant examples of art, music, philosophy, and literature, from the beginnings of civilization to today. New features in the eighth edition are designed to make it easy for you to understand the influence of historical events and values on the works produced by each culture--guided discussions of all of the readings, chapter previews, timelines, Compare and Contrast sections, Big Picture reviews at the end of each chapter, and high-quality images with clear captions. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
|Author||: Chandana Chakrabarti,Tommi Lehtonen|
|Editor||: Cambridge Scholars Publishing|
This book explores three central concepts, namely justice and human rights, ethics and values, and intercultural learning. These are important to everyone in a multicultural society and of special interest to students and scholars of philosophy, cultural studies, religious studies, and other related disciplines. In this volume, a pluralistic approach is adopted to examine ethical and value questions. Accordingly, readers will learn much from the interaction between Western and Eastern methods of ethical inquiry. The impetus for this collection of essays is the notion that cultural diversity represents a source of exchange, innovation and creativity. Consequently, cultural diversity is as critical for humankind as biodiversity is for nature. Furthermore, cultural diversity is a property of the entire community, just as biodiversity is a property of the entire ecosystem. Therefore, understanding and learning from cultural pluralism is as central to social and cultural stewardship as protection and restoration are to biological diversity. Within the pages of Perspectives on Culture, Values, and Justice readers will experience a growth in perspective and a greater understanding of issues of culture, value, and justice. A major starting point for these contemplations is that culture and values are integral to our identity and the essence of who we are and what we do.
|Author||: Richard Hugman|
"This groundbreaking book examines the ways in which questions of culture and diversity impact on the values and ethics of social work. Using detailed case studies to illustrate key points for practice, Richard Hugman discusses how social workers can develop culturally-competent ethical practice and work creatively with the tensions it sometimes involves. Debates rage over whether there is a core set of unchangeable social work values or whether they might be different at different times and for different people. This textbook proposes a new approach of 'ethical pluralism' for social work practice, in which both shared humanity and the rich variety of cultures contribute to a more dynamic way of understanding social work's underpinning values and ethics.In particular, this book explores the implications of a pluralist approach to ethics for the central questions of: Human rights and social justice Caring relationships Social and personal responsibilities Agency and autonomy Values such as truth, honesty, openness, service and competence. It is vital that social workers understand the values and ethics of their profession as a crucial part of the foundations on which practice is built and this is the only text to explore the connections between culture, values and ethics and fully develop the pluralist approach in social work. Culture, Values and Ethics in Social Work is essential reading for all social work students and academics. "--
|Author||: Ishtiaq Jamil,Steinar Askvik,Farhad Hossain|
The book explores theoretical, methodological, and empirical underpinnings of administrative culture as well as prospects and challenges associated with it in the context of and across developing and transitional countries. Referring to dominant norms and values in public organizations administrative culture is about the attitudes and perceptions of public officials. In many countries civil servants are criticised for being corrupt, incompetent, unreliable and self-centred.Their attitudes, norms and values and the way they act are in constant conflict with rule of law. Recently the virtues of the Weberian model of bureaucracy have been reclaimed as an alternative to New Public Management (NPM): i.e. as a model which emphasizes impartiality, rule-following, expertise, and hierarchy rather than manipulation of incentive structures and market competition. In particular it has been argued that a system of meritocratic recruitment and predictable, long-term careers increases the professional competence of the bureaucrats and fosters a culture of professionalism among them. Still it is unclear how and under what conditions such a model can be adopted.Among main hindrances seems to be established power structures and the existing political and societal culture which undermine the effective implementation of the Weberian model. This book was published a s aspecial issue of the International Journal of Public Administration.
|Author||: Ann Rhoades|
|Editor||: John Wiley & Sons|
Most leaders know that a winning, engaged culture is the key to attracting top talent—and customers. Yet, it remains elusive how exactly to create this ideal workplace —one where everyone from the front lines to the board room knows the company’s values and feels comfortable and empowered to act on them. Based on Ann Rhoades’ years of experience with JetBlue, Southwest, and other companies known for their trailblazing corporate cultures, Built on Values reveals exactly how leaders can create winning environments that allow their employees and their companies to thrive. Companies that create or improve values-based cultures can become higher performers, both in customer and employee satisfaction and financial return, as proven by Rhoades’ work with JetBlue, Southwest Airlines, Disney, Loma Linda University Hospitals, Doubletree Hotels, Juniper Networks, and P.F. Chang’s China Bistros. Built on Values provides a clear blueprint for how to accomplish culture change, showing: How to exceed the expectations of employees and customers How to develop a Values Blueprint tailored to your organization’s goals and put it into action Why it's essential to hire, fire, and reward people based on values alone, and How to establish a discipline for sustaining a values-centric culture Built on Values helps companies get on the pathway to greatness by showing the exact steps for either curing an ailing company culture or creating a new one from scratch.
|Author||: George A. Gonzalez|
|Editor||: Rowman & Littlefield|
Reality is made up of absolute and casualty ideals. This book analyzes the lower aspects of absolute ideals that result in personal and social dysfunction and the ultimate end of civilization. Conversely, a society based on casualty and justice is stable and vibrant. It is a classless society, free of gender and ethnic biases.